Every organization functions on some basic concepts and a specific structure. Dealing with the concepts of a specific organizational structure makes it possible for the achievement of a common goal, i.e. growth and development of the organization, and of the employees that comprise it. Designating tasks, dividing and executing them, and entrusting to attain specific objectives is possible in any organizational culture that functions on an organized hierarchy. There are different sorts of organizational structures, particularly, flatter organizational structure, matrix organizational structure, a divisional organizational structure, pre-bureaucratic, bureaucratic, and post-bureaucratic structure, and a functional organizational structure. It is the functional structure that we will talk about in detail, right here.
A functional organization is designed on a strong hierarchy where the positions and functions of each employee are clearly specified, with each having a specific function to do. The organization might be divided into specific departments, where each department has a specific function, and all departments function separately to carry out a project. Depending upon the requirement of the organization, the kind and function of each division will be decided. Therefore, when an employee is selected in the organization, based on her/his abilities, she/he will be designated by the appropriate division. By grouping employees with similar abilities, a department is formed to consist of a functional organizational structure. All departments are governed by one sole authority, and all functions are monitored and worked with by this authority.
The functional organizational culture is most proper when an organization functions around just one service or product. Some examples would consist of organizations that have individually working units such as human resources, sales and marketing, creative departments, accounts and finance, marketing, etc. Let’s take into consideration a shop that designs and offers fashion clothing and accessories. Here, there will be a creative department that makes the designs. It will be the job of the accounts and finance department to keep a tab on the quantity spent on creating the design and for bulk production. The sales and advertising division will create specific plans to offer the products in question, the human resources department will ensure that employees are functioning to their greatest capacity, and the advertising department will create creative methods of attracting the customer. All these activities will be regulated by the head of state and mid-level managers of the organization. More items will cause the creation of even more departments and deeper hierarchies. Every department will have numerous other functions to perform, but these are the basic functions of each department.
and that’s just the beginning…
Below, the organization is divided on the basis of the functions that they carry out, into departments such as Production, Sales, Marketing, Human Resources Management, Accounts, and so on. In each of the functional departments, the employees perform a set of similar tasks. There is a structure again within each department. The advertising division sample is shown.
Because this structure is mostly based upon extreme expertise, it is thought that the functional structure will elicit only the best from each department.
Sense of the sound linear structure, offering direction and carrying out numerous jobs ends up being just.
Each employee has a defined occupation path and has prospective to grow within her/his department in the organization.
The functional structure is the most bureaucratic and formal organizational structure since of the stiff hierarchy it follows. Every decision, then, takes time to emerge.
Since all of them are so unique from each other, Communication across departments becomes tough.
Another downside of this specialized technique is that the viewpoint of every department is narrow and restricted, which does not allow them to see the larger picture and work successfully towards a typical objective.
It can be said that among the various kinds of organizational structures a functional organizational structure is most fit to companies that do not change their techniques of work and function too common, and where there is an absence of intense competition that requires quick action. This structure requires a very effective management that can deal with internal conflicts and issues, and get employees to function as a group in spite of specialized departments. Further, it is optimal in a smaller sized setup where there is just one services or product to provide. For a bigger setup, this structure might not prove extremely helpful.